The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  The pioneering agreement reached in 2015 aims to limit global warming to a level “significantly below” 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial temperatures. But in June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States – the world`s second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases – would pull out of the agreement. But judging Paris on these only signs of disaster would lose sight of the remarkable progress that has been made since then on climate change. This year, according to the International Energy Agency, renewable energy will account for about 90% of the world`s new installed power generation capacity and will be the largest source of energy by 2025 and coal will be supplanted. This massive increase reflects the rapid fall in the prices of wind turbines and solar panels, which are now competitive or cheaper in many countries than fossil fuel production, even without subsidies. The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.
 Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  Canada`s current policy calls for issuing 630 to 763 MtCO2e in 2030, 5 to 27 per cent more than in 1990. Canada was a leader of diplomacy in projects such as The Powering Past Coal Alliance, an organization that works to abandon coal power. However, according to a recent report by the Climate Change Performance Index (CICC), there is a growing gap between Canadian rhetoric and concrete policy towards their Paris goals. The agreement itself proved remarkably resilient. Bringing together 196 nations in 2015 was not easy – even when Fabius dropped the agreement, there was a bit of harassment, because Nicaragua had planned to oppose the necessary consensus, but was ignored.